The Research Commission is responsible for the 94 laboratories and 871 funded projects linked to more than 173 areas of ongoing research in the SMS. The SMS has one of the most extensive and complete infrastructures for teaching and medical assistance in Brazil that allows high-quality training for approximately 1,200 graduate and undergraduate research students. The funding for most of these projects comes from state and federal funding agencies, primarily the São Paulo State Research Foundation (FAPESP), the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), the Ministry of Education Foundation for Higher Education (CAPES), the Study and Project Funding Agency (FINEP) and the university´s Fund for the Support of Education, Research and Extension (Faepex). The Faculty of Medical Sciences (FCM) also has 64 research collaborators on its staff. In recognition of its high quality of research, in 2009 the SMS was invited to recommend names for the Nobel Prize in Medicine.

The State University of Campinas (Unicamp) is the largest patent producer in Brazil, with more registered patents than renowned institutions such as the Brazilian Oil Company (Petrobras) and the University of São Paulo (USP). Unicamp is a national leader in various fields of research and is responsible for 15% of the scientific production (publications) in Brazil. Most professors and researchers in the SMS have collaborations with national and international groups, such as Leipzig University (Germany), the National Institute of Neurology of Queen´s Square (United Kingdom), the University of Buenos Aires (Argentina), the Catholic University of Chile (Santiago, Chile), Leiden University (Holland), Lund University (Sweden), the Medical College of Wisconsin, the Children’s Hospital – Harvard Medical School, the University of Nebraska, the University of South Carolina, the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia – University of Pennsylvania (USA), the Curie Institute (Paris), the University of the Americas (Mexico), Poznan University (Poland), and the University of Montreal and  McGill University, Canada. Many SMS researchers have received national and international recognition for their contributions to the advancement of science in Brazil, and several of them are members of the National Academy of Medicine, the Brazilian Academy of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the Brazilian Academy of Sciences.